Effect of the supplementation with quinoa seeds on sensory properties of some oriental sweets and on the health status of rats
The current research aims to study the effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivated in Egypt on sensory properties of some oriental sweets ( Dumplings-locomades, Aish El Saraya , Asabeh Zainab, Sad El Hanak, Konafa) as well as its effect on the health status of rats. Quinoa seeds powder were introduced in the above mentioned oriental sweets at 20%, 30% and 40% substitutions, and the sensory properties of these products were evaluated through trained arbitrators. Also biochemical analysis and histopathological properties were investigated using forty male albino rats which were randomly divided into two main groups. The first main group (10 rats) was considered as control group fed on basal diet while the second main group (30 rats) consisted of three subgroups 10 rats eaches. Quinoa was introduced in their diet at level of substitution 20%, 30% and 40%, for 5 weeks.
Concerning the sensory evaluation it could be noticed that with the increase of the ratio of quinoa flour in oriental sweets the resulted aroma, taste , color , and overall acceptability scores decreased obviously. In this respect, results showed good acceptance for oriental sweets ( Dumplings-locomades, Aish El Saraya , Asabeh Zainab, Sad El Hanak, Konafa) containing 20% quinoa whereas oriental sweets fortification by 40% quinoa gave the lowest scores.
Moreover the biochemical analysis results showed that groups fed on 20% , 30% and 40% quinoa displayed a decrease in body weight gain. The decrease was significant when comparing between control group C ( rats fed on basal diet) and rat group fed on basal diet supplemented with 20% quinoa. Concerning organs´ weights there was significant decrease (P<0.05) in liver and kidney weights between control group (C) and groups feeding on quinoa at levels 20% and 30% (Q1,Q2). Also there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in heart and spleen weight between control group (C) and rats feeding on 30% quinoa (Q2).However, there were no significant differences between control group (C) and other groups fed on quinoa at different levels 20%,30% and 40% (Q1,Q2,Q3) in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) enzymes activities. Concerning malate dehydrogenase (MDH ) enzyme´s activity there was significant decrease (P<0.05) when comparing between control group (C) and rats group fed on 20% quinoa ( Q1 ). On the other hand, there were significant increase (P<0.05) when comparing between control group (C) and rat groups fed on 30% and 40% quinoa (Q2,Q3).
Results also declared that there were no significant differences (P<0.05) between control group (C) and groups fed on quinoa at level 20%,30% and 40% (Q1,Q2,Q3) in hemoglobin ( HB) , red blood cells ( R.B.C.s) , packed red cell volume PCV (HCT) and platelets ( PLT). Concerning albumin level a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed between control group (C) and rat groups fed on basal diet supplemented with 20% and 40% quinoa (Q1,Q3). Concerning calcium there was significant decrease (p<0.05) between control group (C) and rat groups fed on quinoa at 30% (Q2) whereas , the differences between control group(C) and other groups were not significant.
According to histopathological studies´ results declared that with the increase of the ratio of quinoa in rats´ diet the results lead to bad effects on liver and some histopathological changes in kidney.
The study recommends that more studies should be conducted on the seeds of quinoa cultivated in Egypt to ensure the safety of its use and to find out the causes of the effects that appeared on both liver and kidney before the general use by humans in fortification of food.
Keywords: quinoa – sensory evaluation-oxidation enzymes –Histopathological –rats